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Why not children’s retellings of the tales of Bozhena Nemtsova caused a scandal:”Three nuts for Cinderella”, etc

It is surprising that the Slavic children know Charles Perrault and the brothers Grimm and bad — Bozhen Nemtsov, the legendary Czech collector of fairy tales. The Czechs themselves consider it the founder of Czech literature. But, in addition, Nemtsov’s greater glory because, in contrast to Perrault and Grimm, not reworked folk tales into cautionary stories with morals. She even handled them so minimal that the stories or certain things caused a scandal because it took place in the prudish nineteenth century.

Twelve months and their unknown author

The most famous in Russia from West Slavic fairy tales, recorded Nemtsova — “Twelve months.” Of course, the children know her in the adaptation of Marshak, who made her a play, removing all unchildlike moments. But childhood goes away, and adults should have an idea of what this fairy tale looked like, while it was folklore, not literature. However, for this Nemtsov should have been more actively published — but in favor is still a Frenchman Perrault and the Germans Grimm, and not the main Slavic collector of fairy tales. It is possible to tell thanks that at least one fairy tale and at least in Marshak’s retelling know in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus.

Another famous fairy tale, which made a popular film — “Three nuts for Cinderella.” But the film “the Seven ravens”, also records Nemcova, we know much less, although many Czechs it had grown.

Real name božena němcová, however, Barbora Panklav. The name “Bozhena” she took out protest before which the neglect in its time was all Slavic Austro-Hungarian Empire. The new name received by her husband — Joseph Nemec. Seventeen parents literally pushed out Barbora married thirty-two year old Nemara, the tax inspector — a good party too! This marriage was unhappy, and even troublesome — the German on duty constantly moved from city to city.

Barbora did not immediately come to interest in native folklore. Married life was a constant burden to her, and she was looking for an outlet. Somewhere in the twenty three years I started writing poems, but realized that poetry was not her element. I switched to essays, especially since I suddenly became interested in my native Slavic history and culture. Two of her first essays are turning points in the history of collecting Slavic folklore, and in the history of Czech literature (Nemtsova finally came to prose). “Pictures of domazhlitsky vicinities” and “Folk tales and legends” in seven parts attracted attention of Slavophiles instantly.

These essays Bozena first wrote in Czech, not in German. German, as a matter of fact, was Bozhena’s native language not only because she lived in Austria-Hungary. Her stepfather from six months Bozhena was German Johann Punk, whose name she wore before marriage. And the first six months she was New, named mother. Naturally, the family did not communicate in Czech — Johann probably did not know it. Who was the biological father of Bozena? It is unknown, and it does not matter. He didn’t have the slightest effect on her.

Only twenty-three years, having become acquainted with the now legendary Czech poet Vaclav Bolemia Nebeski and by Karel Jaromir Erben, Bozena imbued with the idea of confrontation of the assimilation of the Czechs and Slovaks and Germans. She began writing in Czech — but by the time the Czech was very conventionally written language. When they wanted to record something big, smart, difficult, academic — they wrote in German.

For a long time Bozena avoided literature — experience with poetry made her think that for literature it is not created at all. Journalism is different. There is enough smooth style and attention to the facts. But both poets convinced Bozena to at least try. Czech literature has not yet required genius. Czech literature was required to beginning, she needed a nourishing environment where you will grow up to be geniuses, they said. And Bozena tried.

He pushed her in literature, to tell the truth, the need. In the hands of the Germans had four children, when Joseph suffered from suspicion of links with the revolutionaries. He was reduced with each new transfer, and in the end just fired with a “wolf ticket”. Without money it was not just hard: he died from the inability to pay doctors to buy medicines son Hynek. He — as he often did then — developed tuberculosis. It was possible to stop the disease by noticing it in time, taking the child to a warmer climate, supporting it with medicines, but all this cost money, of course.

The death of the child turned the relationship into a family of Germans from cool to icy. Joseph even thought about divorce, but still did not dare to break the children’s lives — because according to the ideas of that time they would have to stay not with his mother and father, and they would suffer severely from separation from his beloved mother.

By the time Europe already knew commercially successful writers. Mostly French, though. Madame de Stael, George sand, Daniel stern. In Britain, successfully published Mary Shelley with his monster Frankenstein, Charlotte brontë has abandoned the male alias and published books as a woman. Bozena could choose either to work for peanuts coming a teacher or taking a risk and for many days to sit behind a Desk, not knowing you pay off these days, are lost to attempts to earnings in the usual way.

Become the mother of Czech literature

If it is interesting to get acquainted with the classics of Slavic prose, you should go through this list. The first three stories of Bozena were called “Barushka”, “Carla” and “Sisters”. Then she wrote a realistic story “Grandmother” — and finally learned what popularity is. Czech-Slavophile, who would not have read this story (and therefore would not have bought it), was probably not in a year.

Bozhena herself liked her next story — “Mountain village”. But translated into twenty languages is “Granny”, was included in the school curriculum is “Grandmother”, and is still the most active re-release, too, “Grandmother.” It was for this story that Bozena was called the mother of Czech literature. Surprisingly, she was ready to become nothing more than a breeding ground for that one day I grew a real native genius of literature… turned out to be this genius.

The main character of the story was, of course, the real grandmother of Bozena, mother of mother — Magdalena Novotna. Even as a girl, the writer was repeatedly sent to her village to improve her health. Another very significant character — girl Victory, which went crazy after being raped and pregnant, went to live in the forest. She was lured from the soldier’s house. Then such stories were not uncommon.

Later Nemtsova published not only her stories and stories, but also new collected folklore material — Slovak fairy tales. She not only collected them, but also translated them into German to introduce them into the common cultural space of Austria-Hungary.

Alas, fees, despite popularity, Nemtsova received the most meager. The family is interrupted on bread and water. She’s inspired praise of the Slavophiles appealed to him for help — but received a pittance. The stranger was to see what the funeral was arranged for forty-two years of writer. There was a lot of money for the funeral. If the money had been found earlier, Nemtsov would not have been burned by consumption — but who needed it alive? Dead writers are more interesting. The dead are loved.

The most popular fairy-tale old women of different countries and their strange habits are also worth remembering them along with fairy tales, where they come from.

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